Friday, May 15, 2020

The Liability of Directors under the Modern Corporate Environment - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2494 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Z3434911 1 Introduction The Middleton J observation cited in the title question brings a crucial contemporary corporate governance issue into starker focus.[1] Corporate governance is a phrase that has an undeniable à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"motherhoodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ element, in that most reasonable people might understand that company directors cannot insulate themselves from liability where they take no steps to properly inform themselves concerning day to day business operations. It is the ability to establish certain parameters to define Middleton Jà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"more than merely going through the pacesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ assertion that is the profound challenge in this important corporate governance aspect. The effort to establish the requisite parameters undertaken in this essay is guided by a careful review of Corporations Act (CA) section 180 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"care and diligenceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ provisions.[2] This review is additionally informed through its alignment with Corporate Constitutionalism theory. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Liability of Directors under the Modern Corporate Environment" essay for you Create order The conclusion that is supported by this dual emphasis is that not only is Middleton J correct in his à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"going through the pacesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ observation, a director is obliged to approach their duties with considerable vigor. Directors will escape liability in the modern corporate environment where they demonstrably took their responsibilities seriously, even when things go wrong. The Corporations Act requirement The CA provisions concerning the due care and diligence with which Australian directors are expected to discharge their obligation owed to the specific enterprise are as easy to state as they have proven difficult to apply in practice. Section 180 provides that any corporate officer or director must exercise their powers and discharge their duties with the degree of care and diligence that a reasonable person would exercise if they were similarly situated.[3] It can be clearly inferred from s180(1) that the circumstances or special roles of each direc tor should be considered by the court and the objective à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reasonable personà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ standard should also be met.[4] The reasonableness test is measured by another hypothetical reasonable directorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s skills and responsibilities with similar circumstances, where the tailored degree of care and diligence for each director required reflects the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s hierarchy of the corporate governance structure to some extent. [5] The business judgment rule described in the companion CA s180 provision is the primary lens through which director duties will be evaluated.[6] The section defines a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"business judgmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as any decision to take or not take action in respect of a matter relevant to the business operations of the corporation.[7] Such judgment must demonstrate compliance with the overarching due care and diligence obligation, combined with evidence of four specific attributes listed under s180(2).[8] T he rule is not designed to exempt the directorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s liability from failing to make a sound judgment completely, but to give a defence to those who delivered à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reasonable but loss-generatingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ business judgments made with a rational belief and due care, and in good faith.[9] Consequently, the burden is on the directors to show the specific evidence required by the provision and their persuasive considerations because of its defensive nature. On may readily suggest that on the bare, dispassionate s180 of the CA language alone, the Middleton J title quotation accuracy is confirmed. The intricacies and occasional inconsistencies revealed in the practical CA s180 applications are often driven by the variability of phrases such as good faith and rational belief. The following examples assist in this understanding. Specific examples The statutory requirements for directors under CA s180 are basically similar to what they are imposed under case law. The s180 duties are also better understood when placed against the broader implications that flow from the director-corporation relationship.[10] The case law confirms that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation, as endorsed in cases such as ASIC v Rich[11], and more generally in the High Court of Australia decision in Chan v Zacharia[12]. The fiduciary duty injects a further element of higher obligation than that inspired by a person regarded as merely going through the paces. The leading Australian authority Whitehouse v Carlton[13] describes the fiduciary duty as both non-delegable and non-negotiable.[14] The subjective breach of duty test confirms that a director will avoid personal liability where the decision reflects their honest but mistaken belief that when made, the anticipated results the decision would generate were seen as consistent with the company best interests.[15] It is equally important to appreciate that there are specific instances wher e the director decision may trigger both s180 consequences and other liabilities.[16] An example is s588G[17] of the CA personal liability imposition where the director permits the company to incur debt at a time after the director reasonably knows the enterprise is insolvent, or is likely to become insolvent.[18] In her examination of the Australian business judgment rule evolution, Du Plessis notes its inspiration as derived from earlier English appellate authority.[19] She places specific emphasis on the dicta extracted from Re Smith and Fawcett Ltd[20] in this respect, where directors are mandated to exercise their discretion à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦bona fide in what they consider not what a court considers is in the interests of the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[21] This seminal position has been interpreted to mean that the business judgment rule reinforces the proposition that courts will not assume the function of being the ultimate arbiter of commercial decisions. It is important to understand that company directors ought not to be found legally responsible on the sole basis that a court later disagrees with the wisdom of their actions. This is a sound approach to the s180 business judgment rule for two reasons. It fairly recognises that no business, no matter how shrewdly operated or resolutely managed, can possibly control or anticipate every commercial variable. There are often forces larger than the company at work; factors such as international financial markets volatility, interest and currency exchange rates, and government policy initiatives can all play an unforeseen role in business performance.[22] The second reason is directly connected to the s180 requirements à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the law ought only to impose a standard, namely reasonableness that the director can satisfy through efforts any rationale observer is equipped to assess. The standard is not one of superhuman expectation. Harloweà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Nominees[23] makes this point effectively, where the Court observes that the right and duty of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦deciding where the companys interests lie [and] à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ their judgment, if exercised in good faith and not for irrelevant purposes, is not open to review by the courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[24] Du Plessis additionally observes that unlike the business judgment rule scope as observed in the United States, director protections in s180 are inherently more limited. She argues forcefully that Australian directors are not afforded a truly safe harbour from liability unless the good faith and rational judgment tests are satisfied. Corporate Constitutionalism Legal and economic analysis had been the predominant frameworks to review and examine corporate law and corporate governance over the years where the contractual feature reflects its private and individual nature in the context of corporate governance.[25] Although the economic analysis successfully developed an institution al account of relevant laws which regulate companies, its individual and market-oriented approach has been criticised primarily due to lack of responsiveness to political and social concerns.[26] Therefore, s180 under the contractualism framework only requires the directors to fulfil the obligations in the contract without considering other stakeholdersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ rights and interests affected by their decisions.[27] Without denying the reasonableness of economic analysis approach and private nature of corporate law, Stephen Bottomley creatively introduced and implemented a corporate constitutionalism framework by adapting the constitutionalist ideas in political and social theory to give a more comprehensive explanation of corporate governance.[28] In its formulation, corporate constitutionalism is defined by three key features: dual decision-making, deliberative decision-making, and the separation of powers.[29] It can also be crystallised that the board of directors and general meeting should be responsible for their decisions by applying a separation of decision-making powers to corporate governance (accountability), where any disputes with regards to the corporate decisions are required to be solved by deliberation (deliberation), and all shareholders are entitled to contest the decisions to ensure they stands for their interests (contestability).[30] Under dual decision-making structure, directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ abilities to make decisions are restrained constitutionally by the considerations of majority membersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ interests which positively benefit the corporate governance.[31] Furthermore, deliberation feature can not only advance the quality in decision-making process but also contribute to protect the membersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ best interests, where the separation of powers provide alternative mechanism to enhance the accountability and monitor the corporate governance process.[32] Each of these constitutionalism feature s is rooted in the notion that decision-making spanning a vast potential topics range is the essence of corporate life.[33] For this reason, Australian law pays significant attention to the rules, doctrines and standards that influence corporate decision-making. These have an informational component, such as the need to disclose annual account and prospectuses. The CA provisions also prescribe procedural rules such as board meetings, and s180 requirements discussed above.[34] For these reasons, corporate constitutionalism is also a concept that explains the importance of structure and process, as opposed to substantive legal doctrine. Among various criticisms towards corporate constitutionalism approach, the fundamental limitation is that most companies which make any business decision in order to maximise profits may be driven to ignore the public policy concerns.[35] Nevertheless the framework is an important supplement to the existing corporate law theory which considerably im proves the integrity and quality of corporate governance.[36] Overall, constitutionalism delivers an alternative account of corporation law to take into account non-shareholder and other public interests in the process of corporate decision-making. The Rich[37] impact Legg and Jordan suggest that prior to the ASIC v Rich[38] decision, the business judgment rule was rarely invoked in Australian director breach of duty claims.[39] The prevailing academic view was the rule added little to the existing directors duties law. The ready conclusion was offered that where the facts establish a director failed to exercise his corporate duty of care, the company would ipso facto negate the business judgment rule.[40] In Rich, the Court plumbed deeper into the rule rationales. The Court decided to approach the question as one of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.how much further the concept of business judgment is extended into the realm of management, organisation and planningà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[41] This key phrase illustrates how the Court was prepared to take the examination. Through its focus on the decision-making occasion, as opposed to the directorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s general state of knowledge, the Court characterised the director as one obliged to become informed about the subject matter of the decision prior to making it. The Court stresses that the s180 qualifying words, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"to the extent they reasonably believe to be appropriateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, must convey the idea that protection may be available even if the director was not aware of the available information material to the decision, so long as the director reasonably believed appropriate steps were taken on the decision-making occasion to be properly informed concerning the subject matter.[42] It is apparent that this approach is largely consistent with the corporate constitutionalism as described by Stephen Bottomley.[43] The prudent director is revealed as one that understands and adhe res it the proper procedures; once followed, the director should enjoy significant protection from liability claims. Conclusion As noted in the initial examination of the s180 languages, it would be difficult to imagine a director being able to discharge their stated obligations if their role was merely ornamental, or one characterised as simply going through their paces. The business judgment rule as taken from the English authorities and adopted for use under s180 of the CA auspices places significant obligations on Australian directors, ones that are made more prominent when fixed against their fiduciary duties backdrop. Neil Young pointed out in his article with regard to corporate governance that there are considerable numbers of directors who should have great knowledge and understandings of their companies are not familiar with the operations or strategies of the companies.[44] As a result of that, it was suggested that a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"responsive regulationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã ¢â€ž ¢ approach which lays much heavier penalties even criminal sanctions for the breach of directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ duties should be used to enhance the compliance of the CA and achieve a better balance between s180(1) and (2).[45] It is equally apparent that the corporate constitutionalism theory that also exerts its influence over how director obligations ought to be understood affords further liability protection to those directors that assiduously follow correct board procedure in their decision-making processes. [1] ASIC v Healey [2011] FCA 717. [2] Section180(1), Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). [3] Andy Gibson, Business Law (Pearson Australia, 6th edition, 2013), pp232-236. [4] Emillios Kyrou, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Duties, Defences, Indemnities, Access to Board Papers and DO Insurance Post CLERPAà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2000) 18 CSLJ 555, p558. [5] Neil Young, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Has directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ liability gone too far or not far enough? A review of the standard of conduct required of directors under sections 180-184 of the Corporations Actà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2008) 26 CSLJ 216, p220. [6] Section180(2), Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). [7] Section180(3), Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). [8] Section180(2), Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). [9] Sarah Worthington, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Reforming Directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Dutiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2001) 64 Mod LR 439, p450. [10] Brian Horrigan, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Duties and Liabilities à ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going in the UK, Broader Commonwealth, and Internationally?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2012) 3(2) International Journal of Business and Social Science1, p1. [11] [2009] NSWSC 1229. [12] [1984] HCA 36. [13] (1987) 162 CLR 285. [14] Whitehouse v Carlton Hotel Pty Ltd (1987) 162 CLR 285. [15] R P Austin and I M Ramsay, Fords Principles of Corporations Law (LexisNexis, 15th edition, 2012), Pt I.2 and Pt III.6. [16] Section9, Corporations Act 2001 (Cth); as discussed in Taylormaid Marine Industries Pty Ltd v Beaurepaire Ors (1987) 5 ACLC 253. [17] Section588G, Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). [18] J Jean and Du Plessis, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Open Sea or safe harbour? American, Australian and South African business judgment rules compared: Part 1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2011) 32 Company Lawyer 345, p347. [19] Ibid, p348. [20] [1942] Ch 304. [21] Ibid. [22] Andy Gibson, Business Law (Pearson Australia, 6th edition, 2013), pp234-236. [23] Harlowes Nominees Pty Ltd v Woodside (Lakes Entrance) Oil Co NL (1968) 121 CLR 483. [24] Ibid, p493; see the similar English reasoning in Howard Smith Ltd v Ampol Petroleum Ltd [1974] AC 821, p835. [25] Stephen Bottomley, The Constitutional Corporation: Rethinking Corporate Governance (Ashgate, 2007), Chapter2, pp 19, 25, 26, 29. [26] Angus Corbett and Peta Spender, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Review Essay: Corporate Constitutionalismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2009) 31 Sydney Law Review 147, pp148, 149. [27] Stephen Bottomley, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“From Contractualism to Constitutionalism: A Framework for Corporate Governanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1997) 19 Sydney Law Review 277, p289. [28] Ibid, p296. [29] Ibid, p298. [30] Neil Andrews, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Reviews and Current Developments: Putting the politics back into corporate law: A review of Stephen Bottomleyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s The Constitutional Corporation: Rethinking Corporate Goveranceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2007) 21 Aust Jnl of Corp Law 16 1, pp162-164. [31] Stephen Bottomley, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“From Contractualism to Constitutionalism: A Framework for Corporate Governanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1997) 19 Sydney Law Review 277, p300. [32] Ibid, pp 306-207, 309. [33] Angus Corbett and Peta Spender, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Review Essay: Corporate Constitutionalismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2009) 31 Sydney Law Review 147, p149. [34] Ibid, p150. [35] Stephen Bottomley, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“From Contractualism to Constitutionalism: A Framework for Corporate Governanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1997) 19 Sydney Law Review 277, p313. [36] Angus Corbett and Peta Spender, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Review Essay: Corporate Constitutionalismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2009) 31 Sydney Law Review 147, p154. [37] ASIC v Rich [2009] NSWSC 1229. [38] [2009] NSWSC 1229. [39] Michael Legg and Dean Jordan, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The Australian Business Judgment Rule after ASIC v Rich: Balancing Director Authority and Accountabilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2013) 34(2) Adelaide Law Review 179 , pp179-181. [40] ASIC v Rich [2009] NSWSC 1229, p1231. [41] Ibid. [42] Ibid, p7284. [43] Stephen Bottomley, The Constitutional Corporation: Rethinking Corporate Governance (Ashgate, 2007), Chapter2. [44] Neil Young, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Has directorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ liability gone too far or not far enough? A review of the standard of conduct required of directors under sections 180-184 of the Corporations Actà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2008) 26 CSLJ 216, p231. [45] Ibid, pp230-231.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Do You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die...

I am going to answer these two questions in this essay. They are â€Å"Do you think that the right to life entails a right to die under certain circumstances?† and â€Å"Should the laws be changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Involuntary euthanasia is the action that takes the patient’s life without any informed consent of the patient but the patient may want to live.†¦show more content†¦It is a voluntary euthanasia. Utilitarianism tells us that whether an action is right or wrong depends on its consequences and the right thing to do is to promote the happiness of most people. If he has the right to die, it can eliminate the suffering of the person, decrease psychological burden of his family and decrease financial burden of his family and also the society. However, it will increase the suffering of his family. In this case, the amount of the happiness is more than the amount of the unhappiness. Therefore, this action is right in Act Util itarianism of Utilitarianism theory. However, in rule Utilitarianism, this action is wrong because of breaking the Hong Kong’s law. Kantian Ethics tells us the right action is to act from duty. We have moral duties to not kill and not allow to die wherever possible. Moreover, Kantian Ethics is concerned with the act itself but not the consequences. Kant’s theory said people should never be merely means to an end-in-itself. We should never kill someone in order to reduce suffering, or save money. Therefore, non-voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia are not allowed in this theory. Using the above example, when we has persistent vegetative state that want to die because we have no will in our live, we also want someone intend that others follow our will. So, vetoing a person’s will cannot from a universal law because there is a contradiction.Show MoreRelatedDo You Think That the Right to Life Entails a Right to Die Under Certain Circumstances? Should the Law Be Changed to Grant a Universal Right to Voluntary Euthanasia?1008 Words   |  5 PagesThey are â€Å"Do you think that the right to life entails a right to die under certain circumstances?† and â€Å"Should the laws be changed to grant a universal right to voluntary euthanasia?†. In this essay, I am going to give reasons using ethical theories to justify these questions. Euthanasia Euthanasia is the act of a physician or other third party ending a patients life in response to severe pain and suffering. Euthanasia can be classified into three types. They are voluntary euthanasia, non-voluntary

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ancient Christian Art Essay Example For Students

Ancient Christian Art Essay Frightened by persecution, early Christian Art was abstract and vague in order to hide and protect the beliefs and ideas of (as well as) the artists, patrons and audience themselves. As Christians werent allowed to practice publicly or be buried inside of Roman walls, art was often reserved for catacombs. Pope Gregory stated that art should be instructional as well as faithful, but the persecution of the time dictated that it too must be ambiguous. Artists often used seemingly vague symbols like lambs and doves. After the Edict of Milan however, Christianity became acceptable and eventually spread across the Roman Empire. The Emperor Constantine decided to make it the official religion of the empire and commissioned a monumental church: Old St. Peters Church. Built on top of what is believed to be St. Peters burial site, this church once could house 3,000 to 4,000 worshippers. The exterior wasnt elaborate like the pagan temples but its interior had frescoes and mosaics, marble columns, chandeliers and gold and silver vessels on jeweled altar cloths for use in the Mass. Christian churches rejected the designs that governed the Greco-Roman temples not only because they were pagan but also because of practical purposes. All pagan rituals took place outside but the Christians needed a building that could accommodate large numbers of people for congregation. Christian churches had 6 parts: the nave, aisles, apse, transept, narthex and atrium. They were usually built with axial planning and gathered most of its light from clear story windows. Churches evolved into monumental and elaborate structures equaling or outdoing the pagan temples before them. Christian paintings, frescoes and mosaics however, were still governed by abstraction. They usually depicted Old Testament themes

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

10 Informative Essay Topics on Art in Late Antiquity

10 Informative Essay Topics on Art in Late Antiquity If you are tasked with writing an informative essay on art in Late Antiquity, review the 10 facts below. These are taken from across the specified time period and across the different movements in art which were revered by religious leaders and the general public alike. Be sure to review all ten in order to find something substantial and ideally suitable for your next writing assignment: Art transformed from the Middle Ages where it focused on bright colors to draw attention to the contrast between the main characters within the artwork in pieces symbolizing of love and sensuality. Painters of the Renaissance period used lighting and the force of contrast and shadow effects, drawing attention to the fact that love has different forms, not just an emotional response but also the love of body and sensuality. The Middle Ages would focus upon the same content, using different artistic ideals to convey sacred ideas. This piece focuses on displaying scenes from the Bible with contrast in lighting meant to reflect the angelic nature of man or prophets to those pieces. During the Middle Ages, the religious movement which came from this transitional period is referred to as â€Å"Modern Devotion† which encouraged people to seek a personal relationship with God through reading and meditating upon the scriptures (Davies 469). Soon there was an artistic movement of stressed Naturalism. This painting is consistent with the themes of the time, indicated by the subject and many other facets. Oil paintings which had a close resemblance to optimal reality became the major artistic style. Roman-based artists were spread throughout Rome and Europe and responded to the conflict with Humanism. Refinement became synonymous with Humanism for the emerging middle class. New definitions of beauty were explored by conscious artists who meant experimenting with ideal figure types, proportions, and unusual compositions. With Late Antiquity there came many changes, including the land conquest lead by Constantine, and after his anointment to power, the promotion of his new religion: Christianity. It is because of his triumph in battle that he had the Church of St. Peter constructed in its honor. This church would have been considered a temple by the Romans and the architecture used for it was typical of Roman public buildings. It assumed the name â€Å"basilica† as it encompassed the architectural traits of a basilica. Another aspect to the changing religious tides were related to the dead. The first centuries of Christianity brought with them the catacombs, or underground network of passages in which to bury the dead. Inside of these buildings were found paintings and artwork on the walls and ceilings which showed scenes of salvation. The catacombs of the Late Antiquity period were underground passageways which were used to bury the dead. Inside of the catacombs were cubicula’s which were small rooms known as mortuary chapels. The Loculi were the openings in the walls where the dead were received. During this period the earliest figure represented across the artwork found in many architectural triumphs and older buildings alike include is Christ in his role as the Good Shepherd. The altar’s location within the churches was significant, typically aligned toward the east. With Late Antiquity architecture, ambulatory was the passageway which surrounded the altar of a church. The apse was the endpoint of that altar’s location. The atrium was the courtyard of the church or of a Roman house. In Christian architecture, having an axially planned church was symbolic of an ideal and this took form in a basilica. From the clerestory, or third window of the church, one might have a better view of the sunken panel located inside of the ceiling, as well as the entrance into catacombs. It was common for a lunette to be present over a doorway, a crescent-shaped space, inside of which paintings or sculptures were held. Some of the more famous sculptures from this period include the Four Tetrarchs, which came from the Late Antiquity period around 305 A.D. The Emperor Diocletian converted the empire of the time into four administrative units each of which were governed by a tetrarch. The porphyry group was shown as all four looking alike in the statues and artwork in order to suggest unity and stability. Constantine was able to defeat the former tetrarch Maxentius during the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The defeat was captured in the beautiful sculpture. Another sculpture is the colossal head of Constantine, which came from the Late Antiquity period and is dated to between 310 and 330 A.D. His head is like many statues of Constantine which were designed with a message: the open and unblinking eyes were meant to tell his people that he was always watching. One of the more famous large artistic pieces is the Ravenna in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. This mausoleum is covered with a beautiful painting which takes up the lunette over the doorway. It is dated to between 425 and 500 A.D. A piece of famous architecture from this period is the Basilica of Constantine located in Trier in Germany. This building represents a great many of the famous Late Antiquity aspects, including the clerestory, the sunken ceiling panels, the lunette, the apse, and the ambulatory. Churches during this time used a chalice, or cup, during their ceremonies. It was also heavily integrated into the artwork which came from that period. They also used the first four books, or Gospels written by the Four Evangelists. In the artwork from this time period Matthew was construed as an eagle. Mark was painted as a lion. Luke was portrayed as a bull. John was also painted as an eagle. The mausoleums or tombs were another type of building modeled artistically after Roman buildings. They were important because the burials took place outside of the city walls, while Christian churches sought to memorialize the dead and simultaneously show how unimportant the physical body was by incorporating the bodies into the ceremonies. This can be found in many artistic pieces. Purple was the imperial color, something which is seen throughout the artwork from this period. The Porphyry stone was reserved for the emperors because it had that bright purple color so regularly associated with the leadership of the time. These 10 facts should give you a good idea about the art in late antiquity. You may also check our 20 subtopics on this matter and a guide on how to write an informative essay on it. References: Brown, Peter Robert Lamont.  The world of late antiquity, AD 150-750. Harcourt College Pub, 1971. Davies, Penelope. Janson’s History of Art: The Western Tradition (Upper Saddle River, NJ 2006. Doar, Bruce G. The Great Wall of China: Tangible, Intangible and Destructable.China Heritage Newsletter  1 (Mar.-Apr. 2010). Print. Edmunds, Richard L.  Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. Rep. no. 213. Chicago: University of Chicago: Department of Geography, 1985. Print. Fowden, Garth.  Empire to commonwealth: consequences of monotheism in late antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Mathews, Thomas F.  The clash of gods: a reinterpretation of early Christian art. Princeton University Press, 1999. Sambursky, Samuel.  The physical world of late antiquity. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Alyssa Bruce soc macdonadization Essays

Alyssa Bruce soc macdonadization Essays Alyssa Bruce soc macdonadization Paper Alyssa Bruce soc macdonadization Paper My first read over this hand out was a little hard, I had to re-read it multiple times to understand the different concepts, and to comprehend it. I feel like I have not lived long enough to feel the effects or even realize how I impact the world on a larger scale. I have heard people say that being in your asss is all about being selfish. You are pushed into trying to decide what to do with the rest of your life and pray that it makes you happy. So as a 21 year old who solely supports myself, I am just that, focused on work and school. As this adding states a lot of people are very focused in on themselves. Only when we are not so concerned about us and our lives can we see how we effect the world, or how the world affects us. I can definitely relate to the fact that am in my own private orb and I only let a small amount of things into my orb that I care about. The connection between our community, our society, and our America are all something that think most Americans truly care about. When we are not an important figure with in our society, we tend to forget that we may still have an impact on our America. Men and women in this day and age have grown to be content with in the middle class, usually coming from parents with more humble backgrounds. So the fact that because a majority of America is makeup of the middle class, we forget about the fact that we are relevant as a whole. All the middle classes make up communities, which make up states, which in turn make up America. We are not celebrities, or apart of the one percent, we are just middle class. We can relate to each other and rally behind others who work hard to achieve their dream. Because of this we have such a bigger impact on he world then I think we believe. The sociological imagination is something that I think a lot of people cant and dont want to understand. Most lower middle class families are only focused on one thing, and that is there family. I defiantly feel like it takes a community to raise a child, and when different children are brought up in different social classes they are shaped by that community. It take a certain type of person to care enough to have a social imagination, someone who not only cares about their family and community but also their impact on history. We read articles in the paper about war, heart break. We watch accounts of horrible stories and other sociological problems on the news. Most Of the time we dont relate it back to ourselves. We never imagine bad things happening to us, and then when we do, all we think about is us. Why me, why my family, we forget that things that have happened to us is happening all over the world. We may experience it in different ways, in which society had prepared us to deal with it, but we sometimes still forget that that we are not the only ones dealing with it.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Statistics Project, Political Science Project Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

, Political Science - Statistics Project Example The essay analyzes international politics comprehends state sovereignty, globalisation and international security, nuclear proliferation, ecological sustainability and nationalism, global finance and economic development, organised crime and terrorism, human security, human rights and foreign interventionism. The discussion highlights that the independent variable that was prevalent in these data sets was distribution of power in the global system. The dependent variable that stood out was foreign policy decision. The data sets could be found online by simply typing the name of the database and specify your topic later inside the site. The hypotheses developed include that states, all the times, act in line with their national interest/concern, or the interests/concerns of that state; the world is a dangerous place; a state’s main interest is self-protection; there is no overarching power, which can impose international rules and/or punish unlawfulness; ethical behaviour is extremely risky since it can affect a state’s capacity to safeguard itself; the global system itself influences states to apply military force; global institution and law have no force or power; they exist only provided that states acknowledge them, and; the wide ties among countries have both made it har d to describe national interest and diminished the worth of military power.This paper finds that distribution of power is negatively affected by international politics. This is because some nations seek to be above others.